Workmen needed in Texas-1870

A business man in New-York lately received the following report from one of his correspondents in Galveston, Texas: 1. We have no hatter in the city. 2. Ice is sold by only one man, who has, therefore, a monopoly. 3. We have only one gas company, which has put prices exceedingly high. 4. We have plenty of bones, but nobody who converts them into manurre. 5. There is neither a soap nor a candle-maker in the whole State. 6. There is no brick-maker, although we possess plenty of material, especially shells, sand and lime. 7. We. are in need of a broom-man. 8. There exists no shoe manufactory in the whole State. 9. We have neither wagon nor furniture manufacturers, and likewise no makers of musical instruments 10. In our harbor we need a dry-dock for the repairing of ships. 11. We possess no paper-mill. 12. Pray can you not assist us to get rid of so many wants? Send us useful men, skilled workmen from the North; we will return you with pleasure, for every honest workman, one dozen individuals of that swarm of carpet-baggers who devastate our country like grasshoppers, doing only ”harm and mischief."

Identifying steamships, 1870

There were quite a few steamship lines crossing the Atlantic in the 19th century.

Signals of the Steamers Sailing between North- America and Europe. aug 1870

WE find the following interesting facts on this subject in one of our German contemporaries:
CUNARD LINE—Two rockets and a blue light.
INMAN LINE—A blue light at the bow, a red one in the centre, a blue light at the stern, and two rockets. The lights all burn at the same time.
GUYON LINE—Blue lights at tile bow, centre, and the stern, all burning simultaneously
NATIONAL LINE—A blue light, a rocket, and a red light
ANCHOR LINE—Alternately red and white lights.
MONTREAL OCEAN STEAMSHIP COMPANY (PORTLAND LINE.)—White and red rockets following each other.
FRENCH LINE—A blue light at the bow, a white one amidship, and a red one at the stern, all burning simultaneously.
NORTH-GERMAN LLOYD (BREMEN.)—A blue light at the bow, and one at the stern, and two rockets.
HAMBURG-AMERICAN PACKET LINE—A roman light, a rocket, and again a roman light, following each other at an interval of about three minutes.
NEW-YORK AND LONDON LINE—A rocket, a blue light, and again a rocket. RUDGERS LINe—A blue and a red light in the centre, both burning simultaneously.

In the day-time these steamers may be recognized by the color of their smoke-stacks. These are painted respectively: Red, with black top; black, with a white stripe and black top; black, with a red stripe and a small black top; white, with black top ; entirely black black alternating with white; red and white stripes amid a black top; red with black top; black; black; white; finally, those of the Rudgers steamers are black, and the paddle-boxes are all painted white.

Machines Driven by Solar Heat—Sun-Machines. 1870

from The Manufacturer and Builder,August 1870 issue.

MR. A. Mouchot, a professor in Tours, France, has recently published a pamphlet, in which he communicates his experience about the technical application of solar heat. The article bears the title, “The Heat of the Sun and its Industrial Uses.” In it the French savant has laid down in a clear and sound manner, as the result of observations extending over nine years, what, in 1868, the Swedish engineer, Ericsson, well known for his invention of the caloric machine, had announced to the world, to wit, that it is actually pos- sible to concentrate the solar heat in such a manner as to heat our technical steam and pneumatic apparatus. To us, the consequences which must be the result of an extensive application of the projected machines are of great interest. On this point, the author expresses himself in the following manner: “If Egypt, in spite of her efforts, finds it so difficult to elevate herself from her ruins, this decline is less to be ascribed to the exhaustion of her old physical resources—which, in the powerful sun and the fertile inundations of the Nile, have always remained hers—than it is to the lack of an inexpensive fuel. People have to use dry camel-dung, and at a price of coal of fifty or a hundred francs per ton, laborers can not be readily substituted by machinery. In that country, machines driven by solar heat may be effective, because it lies under a sky on which ‘the sun rises in an eruption, and sets in a sea of flames;’ where, for months, no cloud darkens the lord of heaven ‘—the old guardian-god of the Nile land. And the same holds good for the tropics, under which the heat is great and fuel rare, and where the labor of man and beast is very inconsiderable.” “And the time will arrive,” says the author of the above- named pamphlet, “when the industry of Europe will cease to find those natural resources, so necessary for it. Petroleum-springs and coal-mines are not inexhaustible; but are rapidly diminishing in many places. Will man, then, return to the power of water and wind? or will he emigrate where the most powerful. source of heat sends its rays to all? History will show what will come. Countries which have maintained large nations always needed rest the same as the fields.” No doubt the future will show in what direction “sun-machines” will be practically available. Any one who considers the facts will have to agree that tropical countries offer some hope of success for them; in which case, with the realization of an ancient idea, (Hero of Alexandria having already described a pump driven by the heat of the sun,) great changes would have to take place in many respects. Meantime, let us await results patiently.

Oiled floors- 1870

from July,1870 issue of Manufacturer and Builder.

Oiling improves a floor in several ways. Grease-spots, of course, will not affect the wood thus treated; and much less scrubbing than is necessary for a plain floor will suffice to keep it clean. Moreover, the appearance is improved by the oil. Many of our native woods, prepared in this manner, become positively handsome. Finally, it gives the surface a harder texture, which makes it wear longer and more uniformly. Paint costs more, takes longer to dry, and wears off more easily, since it simply forms a crust or coating upon the surface; while oil penetrates the wood. Hence an oiled floor looks better than a painted one, especially if a little color, such as Van Dyke brown, umber, or burned sienna is added to the oil. To prepare a floor in this manner, take raw linseed-oil, or some cheap oil, not offensive in odor, and capable of drying; mix it, if desired, within some such transparent color as those mentioned above; and apply it with a common paint-brush. Lay it on smoothly, so that it will strike in uniformly over the whole surface, and not stand in spots. This may be done at night, after the day’s work; and the place will be ready for use again the next morning. As far as the oiled surface is concerned, it might be stepped upon at once without injury; but there would be danger in that case of tracking the grease to other parts of time house. A new coat of oil, applied in this way once or twice a year, is sufficient to keep a floor in perfect order. This treatment is to be heartily recommended for the floors of kitchens, pantries, verandas, closets, bath-rooms, and laborers’ bed-rooms. It is also a good plan in children’s apartments, particularly in training them to do their own house-work, to leave without carpet or matting that part of the floor where the bed stands, with a few feet around it, and to oil the wood. The floor under the bed can then be easily kept free from dust, and the sweepings can be readily removed; while washstands, etc., can be so disposed as to give time youngsters free scope for their duck-like ablutions, without injury to carpets. In country-houses, the plan might be carried still further. We recently had all the floors in a newly-built house oiled; and we think it wise economy. Many well-to-do families in Europe have no carpets at all; and, though there are some disadvantages in such a course, there are certainly some points gained. We think it gives cleaner houses, with less house-cleaning. Putting down, taking up, and beating carpets is the most vexatious and laborious part of our domestic economy, as their cost and destruction constitute one of its great items of expense. Still, we do not attack carpets—though, speaking of attacks, what a tax the tacks are —we only say, where you don’t need a carpet, by all means oil your floor.