Occupations and Wages in California , 1869

from THE MANUFACTURER AND BUILDER
THE following abstract from one of the tables accompanying the semi-annual report of the Secretary of the California Labor and. Employment Exchange, gives the number of persons furnished with employment during the past six months averaging about 1400 a month the occupations for which they werwanted, and the compensation.
The abstract is valuable as a complete exhibit of the industrial range and reward in this State. In cases where employees were engaged for places in the interior or out of this State the fact is noted in parentheses. It will be seen the great demand here is for skilled and unskilled labor, rather than for clerical and professional service:
Architectural Draughtsmen, 1; according to ability.
Amalgamators, 1; $100 per month, and found.
Apprentices, 32; $25 to $28 per month, and found, (20 for U. S. Navy.)
Apothecaries, 1; $40 per month, and found, (for U. S. Navy.)
Bakers, 21; $30 to $60 per month, and found.
Barbers, 6; $60 to $100 per month, and found.
Barkeepers, 6; $30 to $45 per month, and found.
Basket-makers, 5; piece work.
Bee-tenders, 1; according to ability.
Bed-makers, 9; $30 to $35 per month, and found.
Bell-hangers, 3; $2.50 to $3 per day.
Belt-makers, $2 to $2.30 per day.
Blacksmiths, 215; $2 to $4 per day; $50 to $100 per month, and found, (2 for Honolulu and 3 for Nevada.)
Boiler-makers, 45; $3 to 4 per day; $35 to $60 per month, and found.
Book-binders, 2; according to ability.
Book-keepers, 4; $35 to $100 per month, and found.
Boot-makers, 34; piece work; $35 to $15 per month, and found.
Bottlers, 4; $35 to $40 per month, and found.
Boys, 234; $10 to $40 per month, with or without board.
Brewers, 1; $50 per month, and found.
Bridge-builders, 1; $5 per month, and found.
Bricklayers, 130; $5 to $6 per day, with or without board.
Brick-makers, 49; $35 to $60 per month, and found.
Brush and broom-makers, 4; $2.50 to $3.50 per day.
Burnishers, 11: $2 to $3.50 per day.
Butchers, 43; $35 to $60 per month, and found.
Butter-makers, 1: $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Cabinet-makers, 11; piece work; $3 to $4.50 per day, (2 for Honolulu.)
Canvassers, 84; commissions.
Carpenters, (house,) 1166; $3 to $4 per day, 8 and 10 hours.
Carpenters, (ship,) 18;, 43 to $5 per day, with or without board.
Carriage-makers, 8; $3.50 to $4 per day.
Carriage-painters, 25; $3 to $4 per day.
Carriage-trimmers, 5; $3 to $4.50 per day.
Carpet-weavers, 3; according to ability.
Carvers, 1; piece work.
Charcoal-burners, 2; $35 per month, and found.
Cheese-makers. 2; $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Clerks, 15; $40 to $100 per month, and found.
Coachmen, 10 $30 to $50 per month, and found.
Coal-miners, 23; $1.12 1/2 to $1.25 per yard.
Coal-passers, 42; $30 per month, and found.
Coffin-makers, 2; $3.50 to $4.50 per day.
Confectioners, 5; $40 to $60 per month, and found.
Cooks, 305; $35 to $80 per month, and found.
Coopers, 20; $2.15 to $3.50 per day.
Coppersmiths, 6; $3 to $5 per day.
Cutters, 1; according to ability.
Dairymen, 1; $30 to $35 per month, and found.
Deck-hands, 24; $40 per month, and found.
Dishwashers, 64; $20 to $30 per month, and found.
Distillers, 2; according to ahility.
Door and sash-makers, 8; $2.50 to $4.50 per day.
Druggists, 1; $60 per month, and found.
Dyers, 3; $40 to $50 per month, and found.
Engineers, 56; $60 to $128 per month, and found; $4 to $5 per day.
Engravers, 3; according to ability.
Farm-hands, 1442; $26 to $46 per month, and found; $1.50 to $2.50 per day.
Filers, (saw,) 8; $45 to $50 per month, and found.
Firemen, 13; $50 to $60 per month, and found.
Fishermen, 11; 2/5ths share of take.
Flour-packers, 1; $30 per month, and found.
Foundrymen; 9; $2 to $2.50 per day.
Fringe-makers, 1; $15 per week.
Fruit-peddlers, 2; $30 to $35 per month, and found.
Fruit-packers, 4; $25 to $30 per month, and found.
Furniture-polishers, 3; $2.50 per day.
Gardeners, 38; $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Gardeners and grooms, 48; $30 to $48 per month, and found.
Gas-Otters, 1; $3.50 per day.
Generally useful, 62; $20 to $10 per month, and found.
Gilders, 4; $50 per month, and found.
Glue-makers, 2; $35 to $50 per month, and found.
Grave-diggers, 1; $50 per month, and found. (Sacramento.)
Grooms, 136; $30 to $45 per month, and found.
Gun-smiths, 3; $3 to $5 per day.
Hair rope-makers, 2; $2.50 per day.
Harness-makers, 44; $2.50 to $4 per day, and $40 to $15 per month, and found.
Herders, 1; $25 per month, and found.
Hod-carriers, 1; $2.50 per day.
Hop-growers, 3; $30 per month, and found. (3 for Sacramento.)
Hose-makers, 4; $2.50 to $3 per day.
Housekeepers, 5; $30 per month, and found.
Inteipreters, 1; $30 per month, and found. (French hospital.)
Iron-moulders, 24; $3.50 to $4 per day.
Laborers, 3923; $1.50 to $3 per day, and $25 to $50 per month, and found.
Last-makers, 2; $2.50 to $3 per day.
Lathers, 6; $3 to $4 per day.
Laundrymnen, 9; $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Local reporters, 1; $50 per month, and found. (For the Guide.)
Locksmiths, 4; $3 to $4 per day.
Lumbermen, 432; $35 to $70 per month, and found. (63 for Washington Territory and 8 for Nevada.)
Machinists, 31; $3.50 to $4.50 per day.
tachine-planers, 6; $2.50 per day.
Man and wife, 53; $50 to $30 per month, and found.
Map-mounters, 1; according to ability.
Marble-cutters, 3; $4 for 8 hours.
Marble-polishers, 65; $2 to $2.50 per day.
Masons, 55; $4 to $5 for 8 and 10 hours.
Mattress-makers, 12; $2 to $3 per day, and found.
Milkers, 122; $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Millers, 6; $3 to $4 per day.
Millwrights, 15; $4 to $5 per day.
Miners, 239; $2.50 to $3 per day, $40 to $60 per month.
Mowers, 3; $2 to $2.50 per day.
Nurses, 3; $25 to $35 per mouth.
Ox-teamsters, 44; $35 to $45 per month.
Painters, (house,) 129; $2.50 to $4 per day.
Pantrymen, 1; $35 per month.
Paper-hangers, 8; $2.50 to $3.50 per day.
Paper-rulers, 5; according to ability.
Partners, 3; private.
Pattern-makers, 15; $4 to, $4.50 per day.
Physicians, 1. (Mendocino county.)
Picture-frame makers, 3; $2.50 to $3.50 per day.
Pile-drivers, $2.50 to $3 per day.
Plasterers, 56; $1 to $5 per day, with and without board,
Ploughmen, 1; $80 per month, and found.
Plumbers, 8: $3 to $5 per day.
Porters. 11; $30 to $40 per month, and found.
Potato-diggers, 77; $30 to $35 per month, and found.
Printers, 8; 75c. per 1000 ems, $30 per week, $60 per month, and found.
Quartz-miners, $40 to $60 per month. (For Klamath and Kern.)
Quarrymen, 35; $40 to $50 per month.
Sack-sewers, 4; one cent each.
Salesmen, 3; $35 to $50 per month.
Sawyers, 37; $40 to $90 per month; (3 for Washington Territory.)
Sheep-shearers, 21; 6c. per head, $2 to $2.50 per day, $40 per month (18 Colusa, 3 Los Angeles.)
Shepherds, 30; $25 to 30 per month.
Shipsmiths, 5; $4 per day; (1 Puget Sound.)
Shoemakers, 63; piece, and $35 and $45 per month.
Sign-carriers, 3; $1 to $1.50 per day.
Smelters, 2; $60 to $150 per month, and found.
Soap-makers, 2.
Sole-leather cutter, 1; according to ability. (Shoe Factory.)
Stewards, 12; $30 to $40 per month.
Stocking-weavers, 3; according to ability.
Stove-men, 3; $30 to $35.
Sugar-packers, 2; $80. (Sugar Refinery.)
Speeder-hand, 1; according to ability. (Oakland.)
Street-sweepers, 2; $35 per month.
Tailors, 18; piece.
Tanners, 4; $35 to $45 per month.
Teamsters, 340; $30 to $65.
Tin-roofers, 2; $4 per day.
Tinsmiths, 48; $3 to $4 per day.
Tracklayers, 36; $2 per day and found.
Trunk-makers, 1; $2.50 per day, and found.
Turners, 12; $3.50 to $4 per day.
Undertakers, 1; $80 per month. (Sacramento.)
Upholsterers, 3 to $4 per day.
Varnishers, 11; $2.50 to $3.50 per day.
Visemen, 1; $2.50 to $3.
Wagon-makers 45; $3 to $4 per day; $50 to $80 per month.
Waiters, 122; $20 to $40 per month.
Warehousemen, 36; $2.50 per day; $60 to $70 per month.
Watchmen, 4; $50 to $75 per month.
Well-diggers, 24; contract and $2.50 per day.
Wheelwrights, 51; $3 to $4 per day; $60 to $80 per month.
Whip-makers, 1; $3 per day.
Whitewashers, 4; $3 per day.
Wood-choppers, 367; $1.25 to $2 per cord; $40 to $60 per month.
Wood-sorters, 4; according to ability.

Statistics of Human Life, 1870

MANUFACTURER AND BUILDER May, 1870
According to a French statistician, taking the mean of many accounts, a man 50 years of age has slept 6000 days, worked 0500 days, walked 800 days, amused himself 4000 days, was eating 1500 days, was sick 500 days, etc. He ate 17,000 pounds of bread, 16,000 pounds of meat, 4600 pounds of vegetables, eggs, and fish, and drank 7000 gallons of liquid, namely, water, coffee, tea, beer, wine, etc., all together. This would make a respectable lake of 300 square feet surface and 3 feet deep, on which a small steamboat could navigate. And all this solid and liquid material passing through a human being in 50 years! Verily, there is after all some truth in the story of the ogre who drank a lake dry, to catch the fugitives that were sailing over it. Any man can do the sameonly give him time!

This estimate is, however, made for a Frenchman; for an American we have to modify it, by lessening the number of days he devotes to amusements, and in place of this substitute 1000 days for quietly speculating how to get more of the almighty dollar, 1500 days fortraveling by steam and horse power, and 200 days in waiting for means of transportation. The latter number is by no means over estimated for the inhabitants of New-York, Philadelphia, or other large cities of the Union.

What One Eats in a Lifetime, 1869

MANUFACTURER AND BUILDER, July, 1869
A calculation of what an epicure, or bon vivant of 1869 would have eaten by the age of 70
10 oxen, 200 sheep, 100 calves, 200 lambs, 50 pigs, 1200 fowls, 200 turkeys, 150 geese, 400 ducks, 260 pigeons, 1400 partridges and quail, 600 woodcock, 1400 snipe and other small game, besides 500 hares and rabbits, 40 deer, 120 guinea fowls, 10 peacocks, and 260 wild fowls.
In fish, 110 turbot, 140 salmon, 220 cod, 260 trout, 400 mackerel, 400 flounders, 202 eels, 150 haddock, 400 herrings, and 10,000 smelts; also 20 turtles, 30,000 oysters, 1500
lobsters and crabs, 300,000 prawns, shrimps, sardines, and anchovies.
In fruit, about 1500 pounds of grapes, 50 pine-apples, 2000 peaches, 1400 apricots, 240 melons, and some hundred thousand plums, green-gages, apples, pears, and millions of cherries, strawberries, currants, walnuts, chestnuts, figs, almonds, etc.
In vegetables of other kinds 25,475 pounds weight;
about, 2334 pounds of butter, 684 pounds of cheese, 21,000 eggs. Bread, 14,000 pounds; of salt, pepper, 1000 pounds; of sugar, 4500 pounds.
In liquids, he would have imbibed 14,670 gallons, which, for a man accustomed to the use of strong drink, might be subdivided into 49 hogsheads of wine, 1394 gallons of beer, 584 gallons of spirits, 5394 gallons of coffee, cocoa, and tea, 1304 gallons of milk, and 2736 gallons of water.
The quantity of food consumed by one man in the course of his lifetime, as estimated above, astounding as it appears, is based on an authentic scale of the regular average meals of the day of an epicure for sixty years

A Poor Prospect for the Year 1900, from June 1869

MANUFACTURER AND BUILDER
THE Boston Journal of Chemistry lately gave us a
glowing account of the wonders which were to be
brought to light ere the year 1900 shall appear as the
date of our letters and periodicals. All our old sys-
tems of lighting, heating, and producing power are to
be modified, or superseded by different and far supe-
rior methods. And yet, in a recent number, the editor
gravely tells us that “there is not, nor can there be”
any oil or liquid substance devised, suited to house-
hold illumination, which is cheaper, safer, or better
than well manufactured kerosene of legal standard.
The italics are his own.

Cleaning a Wooden Floor, 1869

Wooden Floors
How to Cleanse them.
This is a very important matter in a country like the United States, where there is so much change of domicile, and that particularly in a city like New York on the first of May. Floors dirty enough to make housekeepers desperate when they think of the bare possibility of being able to clean them, are first scrubbed with sand, then rubbed with the aid of a stiff brush with a lye of caustic soda, and washed with hot water. Then, after the lapse of an hour or so, and before the floor is dry, it is moistened with very dilute hydrochloric acid, and then with a thin, uniform paste of bleaching powder that is, hypochlorite of lime. After having remained over night, it should be washed off in the morning. Housekeepers are then astonished at the beauty of the floor.
When no grease spots are present, the application of the caustic soda may be omitted.

Note: May first was the traditional moving day in old New York. All leases were up on the same day!
You can read an article from the
New York Times archives from 1871 about the custom of Moving Day.
Below is a painting done around 1840 depicting the May 1st melee in New York.



Woodem Floors, How to Clean Them from
The Manufacturer and Builder